The insignis pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is a non-native conifer of high economic importance in Spain, especially in the north, due to the quality of its wood.
It is an original species of North America, where it is currently found reduced to its natural range to five sites, three of them in California (New Year, Monterrey and Cambria) and in two Mexican islands (Guadalupe and Cedros). In these sites, it is at only around 6,000 ha. However, due to its rapid growth and the quality of its wood, in the 1st half of the twentieth century. It was the most widely planted conifer in the world.
Currently this species plantations occupy 4.2 million ha in the world, being Chile, New Zealand and Australia the countries with the largest planted area (1.5, 1.5 and 0.77 million ha respectively), although there also are important plantations in countries like Spain, South Africa, Argentina and Ecuador, among others. The pinewood is used in different countries of the world for the production of paper pulp, saw wood, as well as to produce structural wood, fiber boards and particles.
DISTRIBUTION OF INSIGNIS PINE IN NORTH AMERICA (DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES)
DISTRIBUTION OF INSIGNIS PINE INTRODUCED IN SPAIN (THIRD NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY)
The insignis pine can live from sea level to 800 m altitude. It is very susceptible to low temperatures due to its multiple shoots character, suffering damage below -10ºC. The best growth is obtained with temperatures around 15ºC. It needs an annual precipitation of 600-750 mm, although the optimum is set in 1500-2000 mm. It prefers deep and wet siliceous soils, although it can also live in sandy ones, presenting intolerance to waterlogged, saline and calcareous ones.
In Spain, plantations are found distributed all over the Cantabrian Coast, mainly in the País Vasco and Galicia. They can also be found to a lesser extent in Navarra, Burgos, León, Salamanca, Barcelona, Girona, Málaga and Islas Canarias.
SUPERIOR TREES SELECTION AND PROGENY TRIALS. WOOD PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT.
ORIGIN OF GALICIAN PROGENIES, ORCHARDS, SEEDBEDS, PROGENIES TRIALS AND PROGENIES X FERTILIZATION TRIALS
In 1992 began the breeding program of the species in Galicia selecting 88 superior trees by important characters for timber production (growth, straightness, angle of branches, health). Between 1997 and 1998 we installed a clonal seedbed orchard clone (H.S. Sergude, en Sergude -A Coruña-) with 76 clones. In the years 2001-2002, we also installed three progeny trials (Benade -Lugo-, Daneiro -A Coruña- e Monte Xalo –A Coruña-) where we planted material of 49 Galician families, 6 families of the program of improvement in the País Vasco and three lots of commercial seed (controls). In 2003 we installed three progeny trials with 29 more families and two controls. Measurements of growth, shape of the shaft and crown, multiple shoots, ramification and health until the age of three years, allowed to estimate the genetic parameters, the genotype-environment interaction and stability of genotypes at young age. From these analyzes we conclude that Galicia can be considered a single area of improvement and we can move forward in the improvement of this species by characters such as growth, shape of the shaft and wood ramification, because these characters are hereditary. Measurements made at age 10, are allowing to estimate new parameters prior to this age. Besides the last mentioned measurements allowed to select the best of each individual of each progeny for the new Main Population of Improvement and the best four genotypes for improvement groups defined for the Elite Population (growth, straightness, length of workouts and resistance to Dothistroma Pini, cause of red band).
In the present, we are carrying out the seed collect and the grafted of new superior selected trees to form the 2nd generation Main Population of Improvement, as well as the grafted components of the Elite Population to implement controlled crossings between them.
(R-pr-12) Codesido, V., Zas, R., Fernández-López, J. (2012) Juvenile-mature genetic correlations in Pinus radiata D. Don. under different nutrient × water regimes in Spain. European Journal of Forest Research 131(2):297-305
(R-pr-11) Codesido, V., Fernández-López, J. (2009) Implication of genotype × site interaction on Pinus radiata breeding in Galicia. New Forests 37(1):17-34
(R-pr-10) Codesido, V., Fernández-López, J. (2009) Genetic variation in seasonal growth patterns in radiata pine in Galicia (northern Spain). Forest Ecology and Managementm 257(2):518-526
(R-pr-9) Zas, R., Sampedro, L., Moreira, X., Martíns, P. (2008) Effect of fertilization and genetic variation on susceptibility of Pinus radiataseedlings to Hylobius abietis damage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38(1):63-72
(R-pr-8) Codesido, V., Fernández-López, J. (2008) Juvenile genetic parameter estimates for vigour, stem form, branching habit and survival in three radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) progeny tests in Galicia, NW Spain). European Journal of Forest Research 127(4):315-325
(R-pr-7) Codesido, V., Fernández-López, J. (2008) Interacción familia x sitio para Pinus radiata D. Don en Galicia. Implicaciones en el plan de mejora de la especie. Cuadernos de la Sociedad Española de Ciencia Forestal 24:21-26
(R-pr-5) Zas, R., Pichel, F., Martíns, P., Fernández-López, J. (2006) Fertilization x genotype interaction in Pinus radiata open pollinated families planted in three locations in Galicia (NW Spain). New Forests 32(3):253-263
(R-pr-4) Codesido, V., Merlo, E., Fernández-López, J. (2005) Variation in reproductive phenology in a Pinus radiata D. Don seed orchard in northern Spain. Silvae Genetica 54(4-5): 246-256